My book manuscript analyzes an essential question in international relations: what causes small allies to defy larger allies in war? Set within the context of costly counterinsurgency wars with large-scale military interventions such as the current U.S. mission in Afghanistan, the book explains under what conditions allies, such as the U.S.-allied regime in Kabul, comply with (or defy) the policy demands of larger security partners. Analyzing nine large-scale counterinsurgency wars (including Vietnam, Iraq, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Yemen, Lebanon and Cambodia), the study addresses critical dynamics contributing to these politically problematic wars. 

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